Was quake the Big One experts predicted

first_imgSeptember 5 quake How do you rate Costa Rica’s response to the quake?  Excellent. Years of training and practice paid off.  Poor. Response was disorganized and we’re lucky it wasn’t worse.  No response. From the print editionBy Vanessa I. Garnica and Hannah J. Ryan | Tico Times Staff“This is the quake we were waiting for,” said Leopold Linkimer, seismologist at Costa Rica’s National Seismological Network, following a powerful magnitude-7.6 earthquake that rattled the country Wednesday morning. “Regardless, we have to be ready for any contingency because nature can surprise us.”The earthquake was registered 8 kilometers (5 miles) west of Sámara in the Nicoya Peninsula, in the northwestern province of Guanacaste. After the quake, which damaged several buildings in the province, shaken residents wondered, was this the big one that experts had predicted would strike the peninsula?Scientists in Costa Rica have been contemplating the possibility of a big quake in the Nicoya region for more than two decades. Marino Protti of the Volcanological and Seismological Observatory (Ovsicori), who has been warning of a Nicoya quake for years, disagreed with Linkimer, saying that this week’s quake may or may not have been the “big one”.The last time an earthquake of a similar magnitude was registered in the area was 1950. On average about 18 small tremors are registered daily in Costa Rica, Linkimer said. At press time, more than 530 aftershocks were registered, the biggest occurring Thursday morning, with a magnitude of 5.1.Following the quake, emergency officials gathered at National Emergency Commission (CNE) headquarters in the western San José district of Pavas to discuss initial damage reports.“We are not declaring a state of emergency,” said Vanessa Rosales, CNE president. “We have begun to receive damage reports taking place around the country. Overall, we encouraged at this point, even though it was a significant quake.”Wednesday’s temblor is considered the second biggest in the country’s history, behind a 1991 earthquake measuring magnitude-7.7. That quake, centered in Limón province along the Caribbean coast, killed 75 people and injured more than 600.Linkimer said the official magnitude of the quake could be adjusted in coming days, pending further studies, and several additional aftershocks are expected.The cause of Wednesday’s quake was a process called subduction, where tectonic plates located in the Earth’s outer layer constantly move on top and under each other, causing the ground to move in the form of a temblor. The Nicoya fault zone is caused by subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate along the peninsula’s western side. Geologists, geophysicists, oceanographers and other experts have analyzed the degree of pressure buildup over the past 50 years – the seismic recurrence interval in Nicoya Peninsula is about 50 years – allowing them to predict that a “big one” would occur with a magnitude in the range of 7.7-7.9. With Wednesday’s quake registering magnitude-7.6, experts had accurately predicted the event within magnitude-0.1 – if it was the one they were waiting for. Seismologists said that this week’s quake released about 80 percent of the pressure buildup, meaning that another event is possible. “Part of the problem in that part of the subduction zone is that the Caribbean plate (on which the Nicoya Peninsula lies) seems to be stuck to the subducting oceanic crust of the Cocos plate,” geologist Jonathan Harris said in an email.That hampers subduction, and the release of pressure in the form of energy occurs only sporadically, he added.Another result of the phenomenon is that the Caribbean plate is dragged down with the oceanic crust of the Cocos plate, causing land to sink along the Pacific coastline.“Indeed, sea levels have appeared to rise – not the result of global warming, but rather of the sinking crust,” Harris said.Seismologists consider Costa Rica a very seismically active country and apt for an earthquake at any given time. Linkimer said a big earthquake had been expected in the Nicoya Peninsula since the early 1990s.“There are certain [scientific] models that describe that some earthquakes will occur with regular occurrence,” he said.Because there are signs of cracking in the crust as far away as the Arenal Volcano in north-central Costa Rica, some have speculated that “the Big One” could also lead to more volcanic activity in that area. Linkimer said earthquakes can cause landslides in areas near the epicenter, but not necessarily volcanic activity. However, volcanic activity was reported at the Irazú and Rincón de la Vieja volcanoes in 1991.Tico Times Poll Facebook Comments No related posts.last_img read more

Forget Paris Looking for a city break a bit furth

first_imgForget Paris. Looking for a city break a bit further afield? New York? Been there, done that. OK, the USA, now we’re talking. But let’s go a little leftfield – how about experiencing a big city in the heart of America – Chicago? (In no particular order) we take a tour of 10 of the biggest and best sights and attractions of the Windy City.1. (and 2.) John Hancock Observatory and Skydeck ChicagoFirst up, let’s get our bearings. We have two options for getting a bird’s-eye view of the city. The famous Chicago Tribune says that the John Hancock Observatory offers Chicago’s best view, and who are we to argue? Take the multimedia Sky Tour or the open-air Sky Walk for an exhilarating experience. Or step up to Skydeck Chicago and step out on The Ledge – see the world from glass boxes that jut out from the 103rd floor of the Willis Tower, one of the world’s tallest buildings. The view from both spans 80 miles and four states.2. Museum of Science and IndustryForget glass cabinets, this is one heck of a museum. Take off on a Boeing 727 for a simulated flight; descend down a mineshaft for a tour of a realistic coal mine; witness robots at work in a toy factory, explore a German submarine captured during World War II and watch awesome 3D flicks on a giant IMAX screen. RelatedTop 8 things to do in PhiladelphiaIf you’re planning a visit to the City of Brotherly Love, don’t feel overwhelmed by the wealth of things to do, check out our eight essentials.5 surprising twin cities you’ll want to visitWithout us even realising it, our UK cities have made some unlikely friendships around the world. These sister cities don’t look or feel identical to their ‘twin’, instead we’re talking about partnerships and agreements between two places and their blossoming relationships may surprise you. Stuck with ideas for your next…10 most awesome adventure activities in Australia and New ZealandBored of bungee? From swimming with sharks to walking in the sky, 10 of the most exciting, extreme activities in Aus & NZ. 3. (and 4.) Chicago White Sox and Chicago CubsExperience the great all-American game of baseball in Chicago. You have two teams to choose from: the world champions Chicago White Sox, and the Chicago Cubs. Cheer on the White Sox at the South Side U.S. Cellular Field, where they set off fireworks if the home team make a home run, while on the North Side the Cubs play at historic Wrigley Field, one of the oldest ballparks in the country, complete with ivy-covered walls and scoreboard still operated by hand.5. Navy PierYou’ll have fun, fun, fun down at Navy Pier. Take a ride on the sky-high Ferris wheel or a sightseeing or dinner cruise on Lake Michigan, take in a live performance at the outdoor Skyline Stage or the Chicago Shakespeare Theatre, or take a break with a micro-brewed beer and a bratwurst at Landshark Beer Garden.6. The Art Institute of ChicagoThe second-largest art museum in the United States is home to more than 300,000 works of art, including American Gothic by Grant Wood and Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks. See one of the world’s most notable collections of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist art, as well as an impressive showcase of contemporary artworks in the new Modern Wing.7. Macy’sIt wouldn’t be a city break without a spot of shopping. Macy’s on State Street is a quintessential Chicago experience. One of the world’s largest department stores, this flagship Macy’s store covers an entire city block and features 10 floors of retail space, taking in everything from beauty and fashion to entertaining. You’re sure to find a little something to treat yourself on.center_img 8. Chicago Public BeachesBeaches probably don’t spring to mind when you think of Chicago, but in fact the city boasts 26 miles of lakefront, including some lovely beaches. It’s the place to take in a slice of real American life, from joggers and games of volleyball to swimmers and sail boaters. And of course, admission is free.9. Millennium ParkIn the heart of the city, surrounded by Chicago’s amazing architecture, you’ll find a state-of-the-art park designed for the new millennium. Admire the Cloud Gate sculpture, the Crown Fountain and the Frank Gehry-designed Jay Pritzker Pavilion. The park also hosts concerts, and family activities, like alfresco dining in the summer and an ice skating rink in the winter.And finally…10. The Doughnut VaultThere’s Dunkin’ Donuts, there’s Krispy Kreme, and then there’s the Doughnut Vault. Even the inevitable queue is part of the experience at this essential taste of Chicago culture. The good Vault serves up doughnuts like you’ve never seen, ‘until they run out’, so get there early, as they say! Find out more about these attractions, and many more, at Discover IllinoisReturnOne wayMulti-cityFromAdd nearby airports ToAdd nearby airportsDepart14/08/2019Return21/08/2019Cabin Class & Travellers1 adult, EconomyDirect flights onlySearch flights Maplast_img read more